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References on Non-stationarity topic

This page is managed by Ebru Eris (Ege University)


I update February 15, 2010....thanks to Salaheddine El Adlouni

II update March 15, 2010...thanks to Ebru Eris

III update April 15, 2010....thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi, Hafzullah Aksoy, Kaan Koca

IV update May 15, 2010....thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi, Kaan Koca

V update  June 15, 2010....thanks to Efrain Dominguez, Salvatore Grimaldi

VI update July 15, 2010....thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi 

VII update August 15, 2010....thanks to Taha B.M.J. Quarda and Fateh Chebana

VIII update September 15, 2010....thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi, Efrain Dominguez, Ida Bülow Gregersen

IX update October 15, 2010...thanks to Gabriele Villarini

X update November 17, 2010... thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi, Ida Bulow Gregersen

XI update December 15, 2010...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi
XII update January 15, 2011...thanks to M.Naveed Khaliq, Salvatore Grimaldi

XIII update February 15, 2011...thanks to Ida Bulow Gregersen, Salvatore Grimaldi

XIV update March 15,2011...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi

XV update April 15, 2011...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi

XVI update May 16, 2011...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi

XVII update June 15, 2011...thanks to Demetris Koutsoyiannis

XVIII update July 15, 2011...thanks to Ebru Eris

XIX update August 15, 2011...thanks to Ebru Eris

XX update September 19, 2011...thanks to Ebru Eris

XX1 update October 15, 2011...thanks to Yves Tramblay and Salvatore Grimaldi

XXII update November 15, 2011...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXIII update December 16, 2011...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi

XXIV update January 16, 2012...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXV update February 15, 2012...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi and Ebru Eris

XXVI update March 16, 2012...thanks to Salvatore Grimaldi

XXVII update April 17, 2012...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXVIII update May 15, 2012...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXIX update June 18, 2012...thanks to Simon Beecham and Yves Tramblay

XXX update July 16, 2012...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXI update September 17, 2012...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXII update November 21, 2012...thanks to Attilio Castellarin and Ebru Eris

XXXIII update December 17, 2012...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXIV update January 15, 2013...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXV update March 15, 2013...thanks to Christoph Mudersbach, Meysam Salarijazi, Ida Bulow Gregersen

XXXVI update May 15, 2013...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXVII update June 15, 2013...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXVIII update July 17, 2013...thanks to Seth Westra, Bouchra Nasri.

XXXIX update October 22, 2013...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXX update February 15, 2014...thanks to Ebru Eris
XXXXI update April 15, 2014....thanks to Ebru Eris
XXXXII update June/July 17, 2014...thanks to Ebru Eris

XXXXIII update December 1, 2014...thanks to Ebru Eris
XXXXIV update January 2015...thanks to Hossein Tabari, Amir AghaKouchak and Ebru Eris
XXXXV update February 2015...thanks to Agnieszka Rutkowska

XXXXVI update March 2015...thanks to Ebru Eris


References with (*)star are the last update.



Before 2003 



Black A. R. and Burns J. C. (2002) Re-assessing the flood risk in Scotland, The Science of the Total Environment, (294), 169–184.

Brunetti, M. Buffoni, L. Maugeri, M. Nanni, T. (2000) Precipitation Intensity Trends in Northern Italy, International Journal of Climatology. 20 (9): 1017–1031.

Burn, D.H. and Hag Elnur, M.A. (2002) Detection of hydrologic trends and variabiity, Journal of Hydrology, 255: 107-122.

Chen H-L. and. Ramachandra Rao A. (2002) Testing Hydrologic Time Series for Stationarity, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 7(2), 129–136.

De Michele, C., Montanari, A., and Rosso, R. (1998) The effects of non-stationarity on the evaluation of critical design storms, Water Science and Technology, 37(11):187-193.


Douglas, E. M., Vogel, R. M. , and Kroll, C. N. (2000). Trends in floods and low flows in the United States: Impact of spatial correlation. Journal of Hydrology, 240(1–2):90–105.


Genta, J.L., Perez-Iribarren, G., Mechoso, C.R. (1998) A recent increasing trend in the streamflow of rivers in southeastern South America. Journal of Climate, 11 (11): 2858-2862. 


Giakoumakis, S.G., Baloutsos, G. (1997) Investigation of trend in hydrological time series of the Evinos River basin, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 42 (1):81-88


Kottegoda, N. T. (1985) Assessment of non-stationarity in annual series through evolutionary spectra, Journal of Hydrology, 76(3-4), 381-402.

Kumar P. and Foufoula-Georgiou, E. (1992) Time-Scale Analysis of Non-Stationary Hydrologic Processes Via Orthogonal Wavelets, in Proceedings of the IX Int. Conf. in Computational Methods in Water Resources; Vol. 2: Mathematical Modeling in Water Resources, edited by T. F. Russell, R. E. Ewing, C. A. Brebbia, W. G. Gray, G. F. Pinder, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 99-106.

Lins, H. F. , and Slack, J. R. (1999). Streamflow trends in the United States. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(2): 227–230.


Rao R. A. and Yu G.H. (1986) Detection of nonstationarity in hydrologic time series, Management Science, 32(9), 1206-1217.

Young P.C. (1999) Nonstationary time series analysis and forecasting, Progress in Environmental Science, 1, 3–48. 


Molnar, P. and Ramirez, J.A. (2001) Recent trends in precipitation and streamflow in the Rio Puerco Basin, Journal of Climate, 14: 2317-2328.


Saghafian P., Julien P.Y., and Rajaie H. (2002) Runoff hydrograph simulation based on time variable isochrone technique, Journal of Hydrology, 261(1-4): 193-203.


Strupczewski, W.G., Singh V.P. and Feluch W. (2001) Non-stationary approach to at-site flood frequency modelling, I. Maximum likelihood estimation, Journal of Hydrology, 248, 123-142. 


Strupczewski, W.G. and Kaczmarek Z. (2001) Non-stationary approach to at-site flood frequency modelling, II. Weighted least squares estimation, Journal of Hydrology, 248, 143-151.


Strupczewski, W.G., Singh V.P. and Mitosek H.T. (2001) Non-stationary approach to at-site flood frequency modelling, III. Flood analysis of Polish rivers, Journal of Hydrology, 248, 152-167. 


Tanaka G., Fujita M., Kaido M., Kumagai S. (2002) Non-Stationary and Mutually Dependent Rainfall Input and Its Stochastic Response, Systems Analysis Modelling Simulation, 42(2), 309-326.




Cunderlik J. M. and Burn D. H. (2003) Non-stationary pooled flood frequency analysis, Journal of Hydrology, 276, 210–223.

Hyvärinen, V. (2003) Trends and characteristics of hydrological time series in Finland. Nordic Hydrology, 34 (1-2): 71-90.

Kunkel, K. E. (2003) North American trends in extreme precipitation, Natural Hazards, 29, 291–305.


Rao A.R., Hamed K.H., Chen H.L. (2003) Nonstationarities in Hydrologic and Environmental Time Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.


Yue, S., Pilon, P., Phinney, B. (2003) Canadian streamflow trend detection: impacts of serial and cross-correlation. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 48(1): 51–63.




Archer, D.R. and Fowler, H.J. (2004) Spatial and temporal variations is precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(1): 47-61.

Berezovskaya, S., Yang, D. and Kane, D.L. (2004) Compatibility analysis of precipitation and runoff trends over the large Siberian watersheds, Geopysical Research Letters, 31, L21502.

Ceballos, A., Martinez-Fernandez, J., Luengo-Ugidos, M.A. (2004) Analysis of rainfall trends and dry periods on a pluviometric gradient representative of Mediterranean climate in the Duero Basin, Spain, Journal of Arid Environments, 58(2): 215-223.


Turkes, M., Sumer, U.M. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of trends and variability in diurnal temperature ranges of Turkey.Theoretical and Applied Climatology,77:195–227.


Xiong, L.H. and Guo, S. L. (2004) Trend test and change point detection for the annual discharge series of the Yangtze River at the Yichang hydrological station, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 49(1):99–112


Kahya, E., Kalaycı, S. (2004) Trend analysis of streamflow in Turkey, Journal of Hydrology, 289(1-4): 128-144.






*Andreadis, K. M. and Lettenmaier, D. P. (2006) Trends in 20th century drought over the continental United States, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, 1–4.

Xu, C., Gong, L., Jiang, T., Chen, D., Singh, V.P., 2006. Analysis of spatial distribution and temporal trend of reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation in Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment. Journal of Hydrology, 327: 81–93.


Zhang Q, Liu CL, Xu CY, Xu YP, Jiang T (2006) Observed trends of annual maximum water level and streamflow during past 130 years in the Yangtze River basin, China,  Journal of Hydrology, 324: 255–265.





Wang, Y., Jiang, T., Bothe, O., Fraedrich, K., 2007. Changes of pan evaporation and reference evapotranspiration in the Yangtze River basin. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 90: 13–23.

Zhang, Y., Liu, C., Tang, Y., Yang, Y., 2007. Trends in pan evaporation and reference and actual evapotranspiration across the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of geophysical research, 112: D12110. doi: 10.1029/2006JD008161.




Bouza-Deano, R., Ternero-Rodriguez, M., Fernandez-Espinosa, A.J. 2008. Trend study and assessment of surface water quality in the Ebro River (Spain). Journal of Hydrology,361: 227–239.





Bandyopadhyay, B., Bhadra, A., Raghuwnshi, N.S., Singh, R. 2009. Temporal trends in estimates of reference evapotranspiration over India. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14(5): 508–515





*Groisman, P. Y. , Knight, R. W. , Easterling, D. R. , Karl, T. R. , Hegerl, G. C. , and Razuvaev, V. N. (2005). Trends in intense precipitation in the climate record. Journal of Climate. , 18 (9): 1326–1350.

*Regonda, S.K, Rajagopalan, B., Clark, M., Pitlick, J. (2005) Seasonal Cycle Shifts in Hydroclimatology over the Western United States. Journal of Climate, 18, 372–384.


*Goswami, B. N. , Venugopal, V. , Sengupta, D. , Madhusoodanan, M. S. , and Xavier, P. K. (2006). Increasing trend of extreme rain events over India in a warming environment. Science , 314 (5804): 1442–1445.

*Norrant, C. and Douguedroit, A. (2006) Monthly and Daily Precipitation Trends in the Mediterranean (1950–2000), Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 83, 89–106.

*Small, D., Islam, S., and Vogel, R. M. (2006) Trends in precipitation and streamflow in the eastern U.S.: paradox or perception?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L03403, doi:10.1029/2005GL024995



*Kampata, J. M. , Parida, B. P. , and Moalafhi, D. B. (2008). Trend analysis of rainfall in the headstreams of the Zambezi River Basin in Zambia. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth , 33 (8–13): 621–625.



Brabets, T.P. and Walvoord, M.A. (2009) Trends in streamflow in the Yukon River Basin from 1944 to 2005 and the influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Journal of Hydrology, 371 (1-4): 108-119

Chung, F. U., Kadir, T. N., Galef, J. K. (2009)
Water Resources Planning under Non-Stationary Hydroclimate in a Snow Dominant Watershed, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers (doi 10.1061/41036(342)525).

El Adlouni S. and Ouarda T. B.M.J. (2009). Joint Bayesian Model Selection and Parameter estimation of the GEV model with covariates using Birth-Death MCMC. Water Resources Research. 45, W06403, (doi:10.1029/2007WR006427).


Endo, N., Matsumoto, J., Lwin, T. (2009) Trends in precipitation extremes over Southeast Asia, SOLA, 5: 168-171.


Hanel, M., Buishand, T.A., Ferro, C.A.T. (2009) A nonstationary index flood model for precipitation extremes in transient regional climate model simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 114, D15107.


Khaliq, M.N., Ouarda, T.B.M.J., and Gachon, P. (2009) Identification of temporal trends in annual and seasonal low flows occurring in Canadian rivers: The effect of short- and long-term persistence, Journal of Hydrology, 368: 183-197 (doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.02.045). 


Khaliq, M.N., Ouarda, T.B.M.J., Gachon, P., Sushama, L., and St-Hilaire, A. (2009) Identification of hydrological trends in the presence of serial and cross correlations: A review of selected methods and their application to annual flow regimes of Canadian rivers, Journal of Hydrology, 368: 117-130 (doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.01.035).


Petrow T., and Merz B. (2009) Trends in flood magnitude, frequency and seasonality in Germany in the period 1951-2002, Journal of Hydrology, 371(1-4): 129-141.


Strupczewski, W.G., Kochanek, K., Feluch, W., Bogdanowicz, E., Singh, V.P. (2009) On seasonal approach to nonstationary flood frequency analysis, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A-B-C, 34(10-12): 612-618.


Sugahara S., Rocha R. P., Silveira  R. (2009) Non-stationary frequency analysis of extreme daily rainfall in Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Journal of Climatology, 29, 1339–1349.


Villarini, G., Serinaldi, F., Smith, J.A., and Krajewski, W. F. (2009) On the stationarity of annual flood peaks in the Continental United States during the 20th Century, Water Resources Research, 45, W08417 (doi:10.1029/2008WR007645)


Villarini G, Smith J.A., Serinaldi F, Bales J., Bates P.D., Krajewski W.F. (2009) Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin, Advances in Water Resources,  32(8), 1255-1266.





Burn D.H., Sharif M., Zhang K. (2010) Detection of trends in hydrological extremes for Canadian watersheds, Hydrological Processes, 24 (13): 1781-1790 (doi: 10.1002/hyp.7625).


Cannon, A.J. (2010) A flexible nonlinear modelling framework for nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis in hydroclimatology, Hydrological Processes, 24: 673-685.


Chang, C.-M. and Yeh, H.-D. (2010) Nonstationarity stochastic analysis of flow in a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer subject to spatially-random periodic recharge, Journal of Hydrology, 395(3-4): 163-168.


Chowdhury, R. and Beecham, S. (2010) Australian Rainfall Trends and their Relations to the Southern Oscillation Index, Hydrological Processes, 24(4):504-514.


Cong, Z., Zhao, J., Yang, D., Ni, G. (2010) Understanding the hydrological trends of river basins in China, Journal of Hydrology, 388(3-4): 350-356.


Dierckx, G., Teugels, J.L. (2010) Change point analysis of extreme values, Environmetrics, 21(7-8): 661-686 (doi: 10.1002/env.1041).


Dominguez, E., Rivera, H. (2010) A Fokker–Planck–Kolmogorov equation approach for the monthly affluence forecast of Betania hydropower reservoir, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 12 (4), 486-501.


Dominguez, E., Angarita, H., Rivera, H. (2010) The feasibility of daily, weekly and ten-day water-level forcasting in Colombia, Ingenieria e Investigacion, 30 (2): 178-187.


Gautam, M.R., Acharya, K., Tuladhar, M.K. (2010) Upward trend of stremaflow and precipitation in a small, non-snow-fed, mountanious watershed in Nepal, Journal of Hydrology, 387(3-4):304-311.


Gedikli A., Aksoy H., Unal N.E. (2010) AUG-Segmenter: A user-friendly tool for segmentation of long time series, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 12(3), 318-328.


Gedikli A., Aksoy H., Unal N.E., Kehagias A. (2010) Modified dynamic programming approach for offline segmentation of long hydrometeorological time series, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 24(5), 547-557.


Jandhyala, V.K., Fotopoulas, S.B., You, J. (2010) Change-point analysis of mean annual rainfall data from Tucuma'n, Argentina, Environmetrics, 21(7-8): 687-697 (doi: 10.1002/env.1038).


Khaliq, M.N., Gachon, P. (2010) Pacific Decadal Oscillation climate variability and temporal pattern of winter flows in north-western North America, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11: 917-933.


Kumar, V., Jain, S.K. (2010) Trends in seasonal and annual rainfall and rainy days in Kashmir Valley in the last century, Quaternary International, 212(1): 64-69.

Kumar V., Jain, S.K., Singh Y. (2010) Analysis of long-term rainfall trends in India, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55(4), 484-496.



Kunkel, K. E. , Easterling, D. R. , Kristovich, A. R. , Gleason, B. , Stoecker, L. , and Smith, R. (2010). Recent increases in US heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(24), L24706.

Kysely J., Picek J., Beranova R. (2010) Estimating extremes in climate change simulations using peaks-over-threshold method with a non-stationary threshold, Global and Planetary Change, 71 (1-2): 55-68.

Lee, T.-S., and Ouarda, T.B.M.J. (2010) Long-term prediction of precipitation and hydrologic extremes with nonstationary oscillation processes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D13107 (doi:10.1029/2009JD012801).


Lima C.H.R. and Lall U. (2010) Spatial scaling in a changing climate: A hierarchical bayesian model for non-stationary multi-site annual maximum and monthly streamflow, Journal of Hydrology, 383, 307–318 (10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.12.045).


Liu P., Guo S., Xiong L., Chen L. (2010) Flood season segmentation based on the probability change-point analysis technique, Hydrological Processes, 55(4), 540-554.


Liu Q., Yang Z., Cui B. and Sun T. (2010) The temporal trends of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to key meteorological variables in the Yellow River Basin, China, Hydrological Processes, 24(15), 2171-2181.


Lopez-Moreno, J.I., Vincente-Serrano, S.M., Angulo-Martinez, M., Begueria, S. (2010) Trends in daily precipitation on the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, 1955-2006, International Journal of Climatology, 30(7), 1026-1041. 


Mailhot, A. and Duchesne, S. (2010) Design Criteria of Urban Drainage Infrastructures under Climate Change, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 136(2):201-208.

Mohsin, T., and Gough, W. A. (2010). Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Theoritical and Applied Climatolology, 101 (3–4): 311–327.

Mudersbach, C. and Jensen, j.. (2010) Non-stationary extreme value analysis of annual maximum water levels for designing coastal structures on the German North Sea coastline, Journal of Flood Risk Managemet, 3(1): 52-62.


Parey S., Hoang T.T.H., Dacunha-Castelle D. (2010) Different ways to compute temperature return levels in the climate change context, Environmetrics, 21 (7-8): 698-718.


Qin, N., Chen, X., Fu, G., Zhai, J. and Xue, X. (2010) Precipitation and temperature trends for the Southwest China: 1960-2007, Hydrological Processes, 24(25): 3733-3744.


Smith, J.A., Baeck, M.L., Villarini, G., and Krajewski, W.F. (2010) The hydrology and hydrometeorology of flooding in the Delaware River Basin, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11(4): 841-859.


Sushama, L., Khaliq, M.N., Laprise, R., (2010) Dry spells over Canada in a changing climate as simulated by the Canadian RCM, Global and Planetary Change, 74(1): 1-14.


Tesemma, Z.K., Mohamed, Y.A., Steenhuis, T.S. (2010) Trends in rainfall and runoff in the Blue Nile basin: 1964-2003. Hydrological Processes, 24(25) 3747-3758.


Verdon-Kidd D. C., Kiem A. S. (2010) Quantifying drought risk in a non-stationary climate, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11(4): 1019-1031 (doi: 10.1175/2010JHM1215.1).


Villarini, G., and Smith, J.A. (2010) Flood peak distributions for the Eastern United States, Water Resources Research, 46, W06504 (do,: 10.1029/2009WR008395)


Villarini, G., Smith, J.A., Napolitano, F. (2010) Nonstationary modeling of a long record of rainfall and temperature over Rome, Advances in Water Resources, 33 (10): 1256-1267 (doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.03.013)


Vincent, C., Giebel, G., Pinson, P., Madsen, H. (2010) Resolving Nonstationary Spectral Information in Wind Speed Time Series Using the Hilbert–Huang Transform, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49, 253-267. 


Werle, P. (2010) Time domain characterization of micrometeorological data based on a two sample variance, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150(6): 832-840 (doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.12.007). 


Xu, K.,Milliman, J.D. and Xu, H. (2010) Temporal trends of precipitation and runoff in major Chinese Rivers since 1951, Global and Palnetary Change, 73(3-4): 219-232. 


Yang Y. J. (2010) Redefine Water Infrastructure Adaptation to a Nonstationary Climate, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 136(3), 297-407. 


*Wilson D, Hisdal H, Lawrence D. (2010). Has streamflow changed in the Nordic countries?—Recent trends and comparisons to hydrological projections. Journal of Hydrology, 394: 334346.


Zhang Q., Jiang T., Chen, Y.D., Chen X. (2010) Changing properties of hydrological extremes in south China: natural variations or human influences?, Hydrological Processes, 24(11): 1421-1432 (doi: 10.1002/hyp.7599).





Abaurrea J., Asin J., Cebrian A.C., Garcia-Vera M.A. (2011) Trend analysis of water quality series based on regression models with correlated errors, Journalof Hydrology, 400 (3-4): 341-352. 


Barbosa, S. M. (2011) Testing for deterministic trends in global sea surface temperature, Journal of Climate, 24 (10), 2516-2522. 


Begueria, S., Angulo-Martinez, M., Vicento-Serrano, S.M., Lopez-Moreno, J.I., El-Kenawy, A. (2011) Assessing trends in extreme precipitation events intensity and magnitude using non-stationary peaks-over-thresholds analysis: a case study in northeast Spain from 1930 to 2006, International Journal of Climatology, 31 (14): 2102-2114.


Bonnin G.M., Maitaria, K., Yekta, M. (2011) Trends in rainfall exceedances in the observed record in selected areas of the United States, JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 47(6): 1173-1182.


Burn, D.H., Mansour, R., Zhang, K., Whitfield, P.H. (2011)Trends and variability in extreme rainfall events in British Columbia, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 36 (1), pp. 67-82. 


Caloiero T., Coscarelli R., Ferrari E., Mancini M., Trend detection of annual and seasonal rainfall in Calabria (Southern Italy), International Journal of Climatology, 31 (1): 44-56. 


Cantet, P., Bacro, J-N., Arnaud, P. (2011) Using a rainfall stochastic generator to detect trends in extreme rainfall, Stochastic Enviromental Research and Risk Assessment, 25 (3): 429-441.

Chelani, A.B., 2011. Change detection using CUSUM and modified CUSUM method in air pollutant concentrations at traffic site in Delhi, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 25 (6): 827-834.


Ferguson I. M., Duffy, P. B., Phillips, T. J., Liang, X., Dracup, J. A., Schubert, S., Pegion, P. (2011) Non stationarity of the signal and noise characteristics of seasonal precipitation anomalies, Climate Dynamics, 36(3-4): 739-752 (doi 10.1007/s00382-010-0850-y). 

Gemmer, M., Fischer, T., Jiang, T., Su, B.D., Liu, L.L. (2011) Trends in precipitation extremes in the Zhujiang River Basin, South China,  Journal of Climate,  24:750–761.



Grimaldi, S, Kao S-C, Castellarin A., Papalexiou S-M, Viglone A., Laio F., Aksoy H.,Gedikli A. (2011) Statistical Hydrology: In Peter Widerer (ed.) Treatise on Water Science, vol2 , 419-517, Oxford: Academic Press.


Haucke, J. and Clancy, K.A. (2011) Stationarity of streamflow records and their influence on bankfull regional Curves, JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 47(6):1338-1347.


Heaton, M.J., Katzfuss, M., Ramachandar, S., Pedings, K., Gilleland, E., Mannshardt-Shamseldin, E. and Smith, R.L. (2011) Spatio-temporal models for large-scale indicators of extreme weather, Envirometrics, 22: 294-303.


Hirsch, R. M., 2011. A Perspective on Nonstationarity and Water Management. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):436-446. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00539.x


Jakob, D. , Karoly, D. J. , and Seed, A. (2011a). Non-stationarity in daily and sub-daily intense rainfall. Part 1: Sydney, Australia. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11: 2263–2271.

Jakob, D. , Karoly, D. J. , and Seed, A. (2011b). Non-stationarity in daily and sub-daily intense rainfall. Part 2: Regional assessment for sites in south-east Australia. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11: 2273–2284.

Jhajharia, D., Dinpashoh, Y., Kahya, E., Singh, V.P., Fakheri-Fard, A., 2011. Trends in reference evapotranspiration in the humid region of northeast India. Hydrological Processes, 26(3): 421-435.

Johnson, H.M., Domagalski, J.L., Slaeh, D.K. (2011) Trends in pesticide concentrations in streams of in western United States, 1993-2005, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 47(2): 265-286. 

Joshi, M.K., Pandey, A.C. (2011) Trend and spectral analysis of rainfall over India during 1901-2000, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 116 (6), art. no. D06104.


Kamruzzaman, M., Beecham, S., Metcalfe, A. V. 2011.  Non-stationarity in rainfall and temperature in the Murray Darling Basin, Hydrological Processes, 25 (10): 1659-1675 (doi: 10.1002/hyp.7928).


Kingston D.G., Hannah, D.M., Lawler, D.M., McGregor G.R. (2011) Regional classification, variability, and trends of northern North Atlantic river flow, Hydrological Processes, 25(7): 1021-1033 (doi: 10.1002/hyp.7655).

*Kiang, J.E., Olsen, J,R. and Waskom, R.M. (2011). Introduction to the Featured Collection on “Nonstationarity, Hydrologic Frequency Analysis, and Water Management”, Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA), 47(3):433-435 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00551.x).

Kottegoda, N.T., Natale, L., Raiteri, E. (2011) Simulation of climatic series with nonstationary trends and periodicities, Journal of Hydrology, 398(1-2): 33-43.


Koutsoyiannis, D., 2011. Hurst-Kolmogorov dynamics and uncertainty, Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA), 47 (3): 481–495, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00543.x. 


Kundzewicz, Z.W. 2011. Nonstationarity in Water Resources – Central European Perspective. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3): 550-562. 


Lee, T., Ouarda, T.B.M.J. (2011) Prediction of climate nonstationary oscillation processes with empirical mode decomposition, Journal Of Geophysical Research, 116, D06107, doi:10.1029/2010JD015142. 


Li, C. Z., Zhang, L., Wang, H., Zhang, Y. Q., Yu, F. L., and Yan, D. H. (2011) The transferability of hydrological models under nonstationary climatic conditions, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8, 8701-8736, doi:10.5194/hessd-8-8701-2011.

Lins, H. F. and Cohn, T. A. 2011. Stationarity: Wanted Dead or Alive?
 Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):475-480. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00542.x.


Mamtimin, B., Et-Tantawi, A.M.M., Schaefer, D., Meixner, F.X., Domroes, M. (2011) Recent trends of temperature change under hot and cold desert climates: Comparing the Sahara (Libya) and Central Asia (Xinjiang, China), Journal of Arid Environments, 75(11): 1105-1113. 

Masih, I., Uhlenbrook, S., Maskey, S., Smakhtin, V. 2011. Streamflow trends and climate linkages in the Zagros Mountains, Iran. Climatic Change, 104(2):317–338

Napolitano, G., Serinaldi, F. and See, L. 2011. Impact of EMD decomposition and random initialisation of weights in ANN hindcasting of daily stream flow series: An empirical examination, Journal of Hydrology, 406 (3-4): 199-214. 


Ni, C.F., Lin, C.P., Li, S.G.,and Liu, C.J. (2011) Efficient approximate spectral method to delinate stochastic well capture zones in nonstationary groundwater flow systems, Journal of Hydrology, 407(1-4): 184-195. 


Noguchi, K., Gel, Y.R., Duguay, C.R. (2011) Bootstrap-Based Tests for Trends in Hydrological Time Series, with Application to Ice Phenology Data, Journal of Hydrology, 410(3-4): 150-161 (doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.008). 


Pal, I., Al-Tabbaa, A. (2011) Assessing seasonal precipitation trends in India using parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 103( 1-2): 1-11. 


Paynter, S., Nachabe, M. (2011) Use of generalized extreme value covariates to improve estimation of trends and return frequencies for lake levels, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 13(1): 13-24.

Peel, M.C. and Blöschl, G. (2011) Hydrological modelling in a changing World, Progress in Physical Geography, 35(2): 249-261 


Peng, S., Chen, A., Xu, L., Cao, C., Fang, J., Myneni, R.B., Pinzon, J.E., Tucker, C.J., Piao, S. (2011) Recent change of vegetation growth trend in China, Environmental Research Letters, 6(4): 1-13. 


Oguntunde, P.G., Abiodun, B.J., Lischeid, G. (2011) Rainfall Trends in Nigeria, 1901-2000, Journal of Hydrology, 411(3-4): 207-218 (doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.037). 


Ouarda, T.B.M.J. and El-Adlouni, S. (2011) Bayesian Nonstationary Frequency Analysis of Hydrological Variables. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA), 47(3):496-505. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00544.x. 


Shahid, S. (2011). Trends in extreme rainfall events of Bangladesh. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 104 (3-4): 489–499
Shao, Q., Li, M. (2011) A new trend analysis for seasonal time series with consideration of data dependence, Journal of Hydrology, 396(1-2): 104-112. 


Sousa, P. M., Trigo, R. M.,  Aizpurua, P.,  Nieto, R., Gimeno, L., Garcia-Herrera, R., 2011. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean, Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences, 11: 33-51.


Tabari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P. (2011) Temporal variability of precipitation over Iran: 1966-2005, Journal of Hydrology, 396(3-4): 313-320. 


Tabari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P. (2011) Analysis of trends in temperature data in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran, Global and Planetary Change, 79(1-2): 1-10 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.07.008).


Tao H., Gemmer H., Bai Y., Su B., Mao W. (2011) Trends of streamflow in the Tarim River Basin during the past 50 years: Human impact or climate, Journal of Hydrology, 400 (1-2): 1-9.


Tramblay, Y., Neppel, L., Carreau, J. (2011) Climatic covariates for the frequency analysis of heavy rainfall events in the Mediterranean
region, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11: 2463-2468.


Villarini, G., Smith, J.A., Baeck, M.L. and Krajewski, W.F. (2010) Examining flood frequency distributions in the Midwest U.S., Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 47 (3): 447-463.


Vogel, R. M., Yaindl, C. and Walter, M. 2011. Nonstationarity: Flood Magnification and Recurrence Reduction Factors in the United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):464-474. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00541.x.


Westra, S. and Sisson S.A. (2011) Detection of non-stationarity in precipitation extremes using a max-stable process model, Journal of Hydrology, 406 (1-2): 119-128.


Wu, G., Chen, S., Su, R., Jia, M. and Li, W. (2011) Temporal trend in surface water resources in Tianjin in the Haihe River Basin, China. Hydrological Processes, 25 (13): 2141-2151. doi: 10.1002/hyp.7970. 


Wu, T., Wang, Q., Zhao, L., Batkhishig, O., Watanabe, M. (2011) Observed trends in surface freezing/thawing index over the period 1987–2005 in Mongolia, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 69(1): Pages 105-111 (doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2011.07.003). 


Yang, Z., Liu, Q. and Cui, B. (2011) Spatial distribution and temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration during 1961-2006 in the Yellow River Baisn, China, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56(6): 1015-1026.


Zhang, B., Wu, Y., Zhu, L., Wang, J., Li, J., C., D. (2011) Estimation and trend of water storage at Nam Co Lake central Tibetan Plateau, Journal of Hydrology, 405(1-2):161-170. 





Acero, F.J., Gallego, M.C., Garcia, J.A. (2012) Multi-day rainfall trends over Iberian Peninsula, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108(3-4): 411-423 . 


Beecham, S. and Chowdhury, R. (2012) Effects of Changing Rainfall Patterns on WSUD in Autralia, Journal of Water Management, Institution of Civil Engineers UK, 165(5): 285-298. 


Castellarin, A., A. Pistocchi (2012), An analysis of change in Alpine annual maximum discharges: implications for the selection of design discharges, Hydrol. Process. 26:1517-1526. 


Chang, C.-M. and Yeh, H.-D (2012) Investigation of solute transport in nonstationary unsaturated flow fields, Hydology Earth System Sciences Discussions, 9(7): 8885-8903.


Chu, H.-J., Pan, T.-Y., Liou, J.-J. (2012) Change-point detection of long-duration extreme precipitation and the effect on hydrologic design: a case study of south Taiwan, Stochastic Enviromental Research and Risk Assessment, 26(8): 1123-1130.


Croitoru, A.-E., Drignei, D., Holobaca, I.-H., Dragota, C.S. (2012) Change-point analysis for serially correlated summit temperatures in the Romanian Carpathians, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108 (1-2): 9-18. 


Cuba, M.A., Leuangthong, O. and Ortiz, J.M. (2012) Detecting and quatifying of non-stationarity via experimental semivariogram modeling, Stochastic Enviromental Research and Risk Assessment, 26(2): 247-260. 


Dahlke, H.E., Lyon, S.W., Stedinger, J.R., Rosqvist, G. and Jansson, P. (2012) Contrasting trends in hydrologic extremes for two sub-arctic catchments in northern Sweden- does glacier melt matter?, Hydrology Earth Sytem Sciences, 9: 1041-1084.


Del Rio, S., Cano-Ortiz, A., Herrero, L., and Penas, A. (2012) Recent trends in mean, maximum and minimum air temperatures over Spain (1961-2006), Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 109 (3-4):605-626.


Dibike, Y., Prowse, T., Shrestha, R., and Ahmed, R. (2012) Observed trends and future projections of precipitation and air temperature in the Lake Winnipeg watershed, Journal of Great Lakes Research, 38(3): 72-82. 


Donner, R.V., Ehrcke, R., Barbosa, S.M., Wagner, J., Donges, J.F. and Kurths, J. (2012) Spatial patterns of linear and nonparametric long-term trends in Baltic sea-level variability, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 19: 95-111.



Fleming, S.W. and Weber, F.A. (2012) Detection of long-term change in hydroloelectric reservoir inflows: Bridging theory and practise, Journal of Hydrology, 470-471: 36-54.


Gautam, M.R. and Acharya, K. (2012) Streamflow trends in Nepal. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57(2): 344–357.

Gil-Alana L.A. (2012) Long memory, seasonality and time trends in the average monthly temperatures in Alaska, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108 (3-4): 385-396. 


Gilroy, K.L. and McCuen, R.H. (2012)  A Nonstationary flood frequency analysis method to adjust for future climate change and urbanization, Journal of Hydrology, 414-415 (11): 40-48.


Giraldo Osorio J.D. and García Galiano S.G. (2012) Non-stationary analysis of dry spells in monsoon season of Senegal River Basin using data from Regional Climate Models (RCMs), Journal of Hydrology, 450-451: 82-92.


Gu, Y., Lin, J., Wang, X.-L., Zhang, X.-J. (2012) Trend of annual runoff for major rivers in China under Climate Change, Procedia Engineering, 28: 564-568. 


Hanel, M. and Buishand, T.A. (2012) Multi-model analysis of RCM simulated 1-day to 30-day seasonal precipitation extremes in the Czech Republic, Journal of Hydrology, 412-413 (4): 141-150. (doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.02.007) 


Hu, Y., Maskey, S., Uhlenbrook, S. (2012) Trends in temperature and rainfall extremes in the Yellow River source region, China Climatic Change, 110(1-2): 403-429.  


Huang, G., Kadir, T. and Chung, F. (2012) Hydrological response to climate warming: The Upper Feather River Watershed, Journal of Hydrology, 426-427: 138-150.


Istanbulluoglu, E., Wang T., Wright, O. M. and Lenters, J.D. (2012) Interpretation of hydrologic trends from a water balance perpective: The role of groundwater storage in the Budyko hypothesis, Water Reseources Research, 48, W00H16, 22pp. 


Kalimeris, A., Founda, D., Giannakopoulas, C., Pierros, F. (2012) Long-term precipitation variability in Ionian Islands, Greece (Central Mediterranean): climatic signal analysis and future projections, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 109(1-2): 51-72.


Laseter, S.H., Ford, C.R., Vose, J.M. and Swift Jr., L.W. (2012) Long-term temperature and precipitation trends at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, North Carolina, USA, Hydrology Research, 43(6): 890-901.


Lee, T. and Ouarda, T.B.M.J. (2012) Stochastic simulation of nonstationary oscillation hydroclimatic processes using empirical mode decomposition, Water Resources Research, 48(2), W02514. 


Li, C. Z., Zhang, L., Wang, H., Zhang, Y. Q., Yu, F. L. and Yan, D. H.  (2012) The transferability of hydrological models under nonstationary climatic conditions, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16: 1239-1254. 


Limjirakan, S. and Limsakul, A. (2012) Trends in Thailand pan evaporation from 1970 to 2007, Atmospheric Research,108: 122-127.


Ling, H., Xu, H., Fu, J., Zhang, Q. and Xu, X. (2012) Analysis of temporal-spatial variation characteristics of extreme air temperature in Xinjiang China, Quaternary International, 282: 14-26.


Liu, D., Gua, S., Chen, X. and Shao, Q. (2012) Analysis of trends of annual and seasonal precipitation from 1956 to 2000 in Guangdong Province, China, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57 (2): 358-369. 

Lorenzo-Lacruz, J., Vicente-Serrano, S.M., López-Moreno, J.I., Morán-Tejeda, E. And  Zabalza, J. (2012) Recent trends in Iberian streamflows (1945–2005), Journal of Hydrology, 414-415: 463-475

 Marofi, S., Soleymani, S., Salarijazi, M. and Marofi, H. (2012) Watershed-wide trend analysis of temperature characteristics in Karun-Dez watershed, southwestern Iran, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 110: 311-320.


Rivest, M. and Marcotte, D. (2012) Kriging groundwater solute concentrations using flow coordinates and nonstationary covariance functions, Journal of Hydrology, 472-473: 238-253. 


Russell, A., Hughes, M. (2012) Is the changing precipitation regime of Manchester, United Kingdom, driven by the development of urban areas? International Journal of Climatology, 32(6): 967-974.


Saboohi, R., Soltani, S. and Khodagholi, M. (2012) Trends analysis of temperature parameters in Iran, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 109(3-4): 529-547. 


Sen, Z. (2012) An innovative trend analysis methodology, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 17(9): 1042-1046.


Seo, L., Kim, T.-W., Choi, M. and Kwon, H.-H. (2012) Constructing rainfall depth-frequency curves considering a linear trend in rainfall observations, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 26(3): 419-427.  

Shifteh Some'e, B., Ezani, A., Tabari, H., 2012. Spatiotemporal trends and change point of precipitation in Iran”. Atmospheric Research, 113:1–12.


Steinschneider, S. and Brown C. (2012) Dynamic reservoir management with real-option risk hedging as a robust adaptation to nonstationary climate, Water Resources Research, 48, W05524, 16pp.

Tabari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., Ezani, A., Shifteh Some'e, B., 2012. Shift changes and monotonic trends in autocorrelated temperature series over Iran. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 109:95–108.

Tabari, H., Abghari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., 2012. Temporal trends and spatial characteristics of drought and rainfall in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Hydrological Processes, 26(22):3351–3361.

Tabari, H., Nikbakht, J., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., 2012. Identification of trend in reference evapotranspiration series with serial dependence in Iran. Water Resources Management, 26:2219–2232.

Tabari, H., Aeini, A., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., Shifteh Some’e, B. 2012, Spatial distribution and temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Hydrological Processes, 26: 500–512.

Tian, Y., Xu, Y.-P., Booij, M.J., Lin., S., Zhang, Q., Lou, Z. (2012) Detection of trends in precipitation extremes in Zhejiang, east China, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 107(1-2): 201-210.


Tramblay, Y., Neppel, L., Carreau, J., Sanchez-Gomez, E. (2012) Extreme value modeling of daily areal rainfall over Mediterranean catchments in a changing climate, Hydrological Processes, 26(25): 3934-3944 (doi: 10.1002/hyp.8417).


Tramblay, Y., Badi, W., Driouech, F., El Adlouni,S., Neppel, L., Servat, E. (2012) Climate change impacts on extreme precipitation in Morocco, Global and Planetary Change, 82-83:104-114.


Wagesho N., Goel N.K., Jain M.K. (2012) Investigation of non-stationarity in hydro-climatic variables at Rift Valley lakes basin of Ethiopia, Journal of Hydrology, 444-445: 113-133.


Wang, S. and Zhang, X. (2012) Long-term trend analysis for temperature in the Jinsha River Basin in China, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 109(3-4): 591-603.


Zhang, Q., Singh, V.P., Peng, J., Chen, Y.D. and Li, J. (2012) Spatial-temporal changes of precipitation structure across the Pearl River basin, China, Journal of Hydrology, 440-441: 113-122.





Abghari, H., Tabari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., 2013. River flow trends in the west of Iran during the past 40 years: impact of precipitation variability. Global and Planetary Change, 101:52–60.

Bassiouni, M. and Oki, D.S. (2013) Trends and shifts in streamflow in Hawaii, 1913-2008, Hydrological Processes, 27: 1484-500 (doi:10.1002/hyp.9298).


Chebana, F., Ouarda, T.B.M.J., and Duong, T.C. (2013) Testing for multivariate trends in hydrologic frequency analysis, Journal of Hydrology, 486:519-530. 


Hannaford, J., Buys, G., K. Stahl, K. and Tallaksen, L. M. (2013) The influence of decadal-scale variability on trends in long European streamflow records, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2717-2733.

Ishak, E.H., Rahman, A., Westra, S., Sharma, A., and Kuczera, G. (2013) Evaluating the non-stationarity of Australian annual maximum flood, Journal of Hydrology, 494: 134-145.


Kamruzzaman, M., Beecham, S. and Metcalfe, A.V. (2013) Climatic Influences on Rainfall and Runoff Variability in the South-East Region of the Murray Darling Basin, International Journal of Climatology, 33(2): 291-311 (doi:10.1002/joc.3422).


Karthikeyan, L. and Nagesh Kumar, D. (2013) Predictability of nonstationary time series using wavelet and EMD based ARMA models, Journal of Hydrology, 502: 103-119.


Koutsoyiannis, D., Hydrology and Change, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58 (6), 1177–1197, 2013.

Mengitsu, S.G., Creed, I.F., Kulperger, R.J. and Quick, C.G. (2013) Russian nesting dolls effect-Using wavelet analysis to reveal non-stationary ans nested stationary signals in water yield from catchments on a northern forested landscape, Hydrological Processes, 27(5):669-686 .


Nasri, B., El-Adlouni, S., and Ouarda, T.B.M.J. (2013) Bayesian estimation for GEV-B-Spline Model, Open Journal of Statistics, 3(2): 118-128.


Nyeko-Ogiramoi, P., Willems, P., and Ngirane-Katashaya, G. (2013) Trend and variability in observed hydrometeorological extremes in the Lake Victoria basin, Journal of Hydrology, 489: 56-73.


Rouge, C., Ge, Y. and Cai, X. (2013) Detecting gradual and abrupt changes in hydrological records, Advances in Water Resources, 53: 33-44.


Sang, Y.-F., Wang, Z. and Liu, C. (2013) Discrete wavelet-based trend identification in hydrologic time series, Hydrological Processes, 27(14): 2021-2031.


Sharif, M., Archer, D.R., Fowler, H.J. and Forsythe, N. (2013) Trends in timing and magnitude of flow in the Upper Indus Basin, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17: 1503-1516.


Sonali, P and Kumar, D. N. (2013) Review of trend detection methods and their application to detect temperture changes in India, Journal of Hydrology, 476: 212-227.  

Shifteh Some'e, B., Ezani, A., Tabari, H., 2013. Spatiotemporal trends of aridity index in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 110:385–393.

Tabari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., 2013. Moisture index for Iran: spatial and temporal analyses. Global and Planetary Change, 100:11–19.

Tabari, H., Aghajanloo, M.-B., 2013. Temporal pattern of aridity index in Iran with considering precipitation and evapotranspiration trends. International Journal of Climatology, 33:396–409.

Tramblay Y., Neppel L., Carreau J., Najib K. (2013). Non-stationary frequency analysis of heavy rainfall events in Southern France. Hydrological Sciences Journal 58(2): 1-15.

Tramblay, Y.
 , El Adlouni, S., Servat, E. (2013) Trends and variability in extreme precipitation indices over maghreb countries, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13(12): 3235-3248.

Wagesho, N., Goel, N.K., Jain, M.K. (2013) Temporal and spatial variability of annual and seasonal rainfall over Ethiopia, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58(2): 354-373.

Wang, R., Kumar, M., and Marks, D. (2013) Anomalous trend in soil evaporation in a semi-arid, snow-dominated watershed, Journal of Hydrology, 57: 32-40.


Wang, S., Zhang, X., Liu, Z. and Wang, D. (2013) Trend analysis of precipitation in the Jinsha River Basin in China, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14: 290-303.


Westra, S., Alexander, L.V., and Zwiers, F.W. (2013) Global increasing trends in annual maximum daily precipitation, Journal of Climate, 26: 3904-3918.


Yan, Y., Yang, Z. and Liu, Q. (2013) Nonlinear trend in stremflow and its response to climate change under complex ecohydrological patterns in the Yellow River Basin, China, Ecological Modelling, 252: 220-227.


Anghileri, D., Pianosi, F. and Soncini-Sessa, R. (2014) Trend detection in seasonal data: from hydrology to water resources, Journal of Hydrology, 511: 171-179.

Ay, M. and Kisi, O. (2014) Investigation of trend analysis of monthly total precipitation by an innovative method, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, doi: 10.1007/s00704-014-1198-8.


Birsan, M.-V., Zaharia, L., Chendes, V., Branescu, E. (2014) Seasonal trends in Romanian streamflow, Hydrological Processes, 28(15): 4496–4505.


Cheng, L., AghaKouchak, A., Gilleland, E., Katz, R.W., 2014, Non-stationary Extreme Value Analysis in a Changing Climate,Climatic Change, 127(2), 353-369, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1254-5.

Cheng, L., AghaKouchak, A., 2014, Precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Infrastructure Design in a Changing Climate, Scientific Reports, 4, 7093, doi: 10.1038/srep07093.

*Chiew, F.H.S., Potter, N.J., Vaze, J., Petheram, C., Zhang, L., Teng, J. and Post, D.A. (2014). Observed hydrologic non-stationarity in far south-eastern Australia: implications for modelling and prediction, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 28 (1): 3-15.

Condon, L. E., Gangopadhyay, S., and Pruitt, T. (2014) Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the Upper Truckee River Basin, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 5077-5114, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-5077-2014.

Gocic, M. and Trajkovic, S., 2014. Analysis of trends in reference evapotranspiration data in a humid climate, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59(1):165-180.

Guerreiro, S.B.,  Kilsby, C.G., and Serinaldi, F. (2014). Analysis of time variation of rainfall in transnational basins in Iberia: Abrupt changes or trends?, International Journal of Climatology,  34(1): 114-133

Haktanir, T. and Citakoglu, H. (2014) Trend, Independence, Stationarity, and Homogeneity Tests on Maximum Rainfall Series of Standard Durations Recorded in Turkey,  Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 19(9): 05014009.


Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., Tabari, H., Abghari, H. (2014) Pan evaporation and reference evapotranspiration trend detection in western Iran with consideration of data persistence, Hydrology Research, 45(2):213–225 (doi:10.2166/nh.2013.058). 


Kisi, O. and Ay, M. (2014) Comparison of Mann–Kendall and innovative trend method for water quality parameters of the Kizilirmak River, Turkey, Journal of Hydrology, 513: 362-375.

Li, D., Xie, H. and Xiong, L. (2014) Temporal change analysis based on data characteristics and nonparametric test, Water Resources Management, 28: 227-240.

Panagoulia, D., Econumou, P. and Caroni, C. (2014) Stationary and nonstationary generalized extreme value modelling of extreme precipitation over a mountanious area under climate change, Environmetrics, 25(1):29-43.

Pavanelli, D. and Capra, A. (2014), Climate Change and Human Impacts on Hydroclimatic Variability in the Reno River Catchment, Northern Italy. Clean Soil Air Water, 42: 535–545. doi: 10.1002/clen.201300213

Penev, S., Leonte, D., Lazarov, Z. and Mann, R.A. (2014) Applications of MIDAS regression in analysing trends in water quality, Journal of Hydrology, 511: 151-159.

Salas, J.D. and Obeysekera, J. (2014) Revisiting the Concepts of Return Period and Risk for Nonstationary Hydrologic Extreme Events. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 19(3): 554-568

Sang, Y.-F., Wang, Z. and Liu, C. (2014) Comparison of the MK test and EMD method for trend identification in hydrological time series, Journal of Hydrology, 510: 293-298.

Şen, Z. (2014). Trend Identification Simulation and Application. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 19(3): 635–642. Technical Notes

Tabari, H., AghaKouchak, A., Willems, P., 2014. A perturbation approach for assessing trends in precipitation extremes across Iran. Journal of Hydrology, 519:1420–1427.

Tabari, H., Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P., Mousavi Nadoushani, S.S., Willems, P., Marchetto, A., 2014. A survey of temperature and precipitation based aridity indices in Iran. Quaternary International, 345:158–166.

Tao, H., Fraedrich, K., Menz, C., Zhai, J. (2014) Trends in extreme temperature indices in the Poyang Lake Basin, China, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 28(6):1543-1553.

Viola, F., Liuzzo, L., Noto, L.V., Lo Conti, F., La Loggia, G. (2014) Spatial distribution of temperature trends in Sicily,  International Journal of Climatology, 34(1): 1-17.

Yilmaz, A. G. and Perera, B. J. C. (2014). Extreme Rainfall Nonstationarity Investigation and Intensity–Frequency–Duration Relationship. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 19(6): 1160–1172.

*Wang, H., Killick, R. and Fu, X. (2014) Distributional change of monthly precipitation due to climate change: comprehensive examination of dataset in southeastern United States, Hydrological Processes, 28 (20): 5212-5219.

Zhang, Q., Singh, V.P., Li, K. and Li, J. (2014) Trend, periodicity and abrupt change in streamflow of the East River, the Pearl River Basin, Hydrological Processes, 28(2): 305-314.

Zheng, C. and Wang, Q., 2014. Spatiotemporal variations of reference evapotranspiration in recent five decades in the arid land of Northwestern China. Hydrological Processes, 28(25): 6124–6134.




Carlos H.R. Lima, Upmanu Lall, Tara J. Troy, Naresh Devineni (2015) A climate informed model for nonstationary flood risk prediction: Application to Negro River at Manaus, Amazonia, Journal of Hydrology, 522: 594-602.

*Dai, X., Wan, R. And Yang, G. (2015) Non-stationary water-level fluctuation in China’s Poyang Lake and its interactions with Yangtze River, Journal of Geographical Sciences, 25 (3): 274-288.

Farshad F., Dehghan, Z., Eslamian, S., Bazrkar, H. (2015) Trends in hydrologic and climatic variables affected by four variations of Mann-Kendall approach in Urmia Lake basin, Iran, Hydrological Sciences Journal, in press, doi:10.1080/02626667.2014.932911.

Hamed, K.H. (2015) The distribution of Spearman’s rho trend statistic for persistent hydrologic data, Hydrological Sciences Journal, doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.968573

Kundu, S., Khare, D., Mondal, A., Mishra, P.K. (2015) Analysis of spatial and temporal variation in rainfall trend of Madhya Pradesh, India (1901–2011), Environmental Earth Sciences, in press, doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3978-y

Lopez B., Baran N., Bourgine, B. (2015) An innovative procedure to assess multi-scale temporal trends in groundwater quality: Example of the nitrate in the Seine–Normandy basin, France, Journal of Hydrology, 522: 1-10.

Nourani V., Nezamdoost, N., Samadi, M. and Vousoughi, F. D. (2015) Wavelet-based trend analysis of hydrological processes at different timescales, in press, doi:10.2166/wcc.2015.043.

*Razavi, S., Elshorbagy, A., Wheater, H., and Sauchyn, H. (2015) Towards Understanding Non-stationarity in Climate and Hydrology through Tree-ring proxy records, Water Resources Research, in press (DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015696).


Rutkowska, A. (2015) Properties of the Cox-Stuart test for trend in application to hydrological series: the simulation study, Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 44(3):
565-579, DOI: 10.1080/03610918.2013.78498.

*Sadri, S., Kam, J. and Sheffield, J. (2015) Nonstationarity of low flows and their timing in the eastern United States, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discuss., 12, 2761-2798.

*Tan, X. and Gan, T. Y. (2015) Nonstationary Analysis of Annual Maximum Streamflow of Canada. Journal of Climate, 28, 1788–1805 (doi:


Shan, N., Shi, Z., Yang, X., Gao, J., Cai, D., 2015. Spatiotemporal trends of reference evapotranspiration and its driving factors in the Beijing–Tianjin Sand Source Control Project Region, China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 200: 322-333.

*Wallner, M. and Haberlandt, U. (2015) Non-stationary hydrological model parameters: a framework based on SOM-B, Hydrological Processes, in press (DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10430

Wang Y.-G., Wang S.S.J. and Dunlop J. (2015) Statistical modelling and power analysis for detecting trends in total suspended sediment loads. Journal of Hydrology, 520 439-447. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.062.

Warrick, J. A. (2015) Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves, Hydrological Processes, in press, doi: 10.1002/hyp.10198



In press



O’brien, N.L. and Burn, D.H. (in press) A Nonstationary Index-Flood Technique for Estimating Extreme Quantiles for Annual Maximum Streamflow, Journal of Hydrology, in press.





Chang, N.-B., Vasquez M.V., Chen, C.-F., Imen, S. and Mullon, L. (2014) Global nonlinear and nonstationary climate change effects on regional precipitation and forest phenology in Panama, Central America, Hydrological Processes, in press.


Kisi, O. and Ay, M. (2014) Comparison of Mann-Kendall and innovative trend method for water quality parameters of the Kizilirmak River, Turkey,



Journal of Hydrology, in press.

Liu, X. and Zhang, D. (2
012) Trend analysis of reference evapotranspiration in


Northwest China: the roles of changing wind speed and surface air temperature, Hydrological Processes, in press.


Orr, H. G.  et al. (2014) Detecting changing river temperatures in England and Wales, Hydrological Processes, in press(DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10181)











Roth, M., Buishand, T.A., Jongbloed, G., Klein Tank, A.M.G. and van Zanten, J.H. (2014) Projections of precipitation extremes based on a regional non-stationary peaks-over-threshold approach: A case study for the Netherlands and north-western Germany, Weather and Climate Extremes, in press.



Salas, J. D. and Obeysekera, J. (2013) Revisiting the concepts of return period and risk for nonstationary hydrologic extreme events, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, in press (doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000820)





Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare

Institute for Environmental Protection and Research

 Honors Center of Italian Universities - H2CU 
Sapienza University of Rome

University of Tuscia,
Viterbo, Italy


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